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Sifat Fisis, Mekanis, dan Keawetan Oriented Strand Board Bambu Andong dan Betung dengan Perlakuan Steam pada Strand

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Bamboo resources are abundant in Indonesia and have big potential to be developed. Compared to wood, has fast growth rate, abundant potency, short cycle, and adaptable to most of soil types except soil in the beach area. Due to its advantages, bamboo has been used as raw materials for industry, construction, furniture, household equipment, and handicrafts. However, bamboo also has some limitations when they are used for construction material, particularly due to its diameter. The small diameter and thin culm of bamboo made the solid bamboo difficult to be used for panel products that generally needed a long and wide dimensions. Composite products can be used as alternatives to increase the efficient utilization of bamboo for structural and non-structural applications. Oriented strand board (OSB) is one of the structural composite panels that has been used as a substitution for plywood products. The extractive content of bamboo, particularly the carbohydrates and sugars content is relatively higher than wood. Carbohydrates and sugars are food sources for wood-damaging agents. Pretreatment on strands can be applied to solve the problem, such as steam treatment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the properties of B-OSB with and without steam treatment. Two bamboo species, i.e. andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea) and Betung (Dendrocalamus asper) were obtained from 3-year-old bamboo plantation in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. Bamboo culms without internodes were converted into strands. The strands were treated with steam at 126 oC for 1 h under a pressure 0.14 Mpa. Three-layer B-OSBs were made with the dimension of 30x30x0.9 cm3 and The target board density was 0.7 g cm-3 . Anatomical and physical properties of solid andong and betung bamboo were analyzed. Strand geometry was measured using 100 strands that obtained randomly and determined according to Maloney (1993). Crystallinity and pH of bamboo strand were analyzed before and after steaming. The extractive content of bamboo strands before and after steam treatment was analyzed in accordance with TAPPI standards. Samples were extracted using alcohol-benzene solvent following the procedure of TAPPI T 204 om-88. The physical and mechanical properties of B-OSB were evaluated according to the procedure of JIS A 5908-2003 (JIS 2003). Durability of OSB against soil termite were evaluated according to JIS K 1571-2004. Durability of OSB against subterranean termite were evaluated according to SNI 7207-2014. This study showed that density of andong bamboo higher than betung bamboo. Dimensional stability of betung solid bamboo more higher than andong bamboo. Andong bamboo has type III vascular bundle, while betung bamboo has type IV. The geometry of strand produced from andong and betung bamboo were satisfactory, showing high slenderness and aspect ratio. Steam treatment of strands significantly reduced the extractive content, and thus improved the dimensional stability, mechanical properties, and durability of bamboo OSB from andong and betung strands. A simple and relatively low-cost steam treatment of strands offers a promising alternative treatment to produce bamboo OSB with superior properties.

Institut Pertanian Bogor


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