A new DOA-based factor graph geolocation technique for detection of unknown radio wave emitter position using the first-order Taylor series approximation
This paper proposes a new geolocation technique to improve the accuracy of the position estimate of a single unknown (anonymous) radio wave emitter. We consider a factor graph (FG)-based geolocation technique, where the input are the samples of direction-of-arrival (DOA) measurement results sent from the sensors. It is shown that the accuracy of the DOA-based FG geolocation algorithm can be improved by introducing approximated expressions for the mean and variance of the tangent and cotangent functions based on the first-order Taylor series (TS) at the tangent factor nodes of the FG. This paper also derives a closed-form expression of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for DOA-based geolocation, where the number of samples is taken into account. The proposed technique does not require high computational complexity because only mean and variance are to be exchanged between the nodes in the FG. It is shown that the position estimation accuracy with the proposed technique outperforms the conventional DOA-based least square (LS) technique and that the achieved root mean square error (RMSE) is very close to the theoretical CRLB.